Ph.D. dissertation - a large write-up of several hundred pages of one's doctoral research; it is better to see if the author has published part of it as a journal article instead, Unpublished manuscript - unpublished research posted online by a researcher, Authors who are academic experts – professors, researchers, and graduate students, Specialized contents, style, and language, which requiring at least some basic familiarity with the field, terminology, and concepts, Plain text format, with few or no graphics other than data graphs or technical illustrations, Reporting original research by the authors, Sources are always cited in the text and usually at the end of each paper. Careful, though, because not all sources are created equal. Edited volume. However, professors grading your papers might find it odd if you cite a video as a source, even if it is a good one. 3. For example, Academic Search Complete has this feature on the initial search screen - click on the pertinent box to limit the search. Start with the assigned readings. you competitors do, and even your teachers do. In literature classes, it is common to cite fictional works (novels, poems, and such). Sources in virtually any medium can be scholarly or non-scholarly. Master's thesis - research by a novice researcher, which may not be of great quality. They’re not supposed to be the ‘final word’ on a topic, or even an authoritative and credible essay source. the strategies for working within the rules.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'helpfulprofessor_com-leader-3','ezslot_16',649,'0','0'])); We do not, ever, condone using someone else’s intellectual Published on July 25, 2018 by Courtney Gahan. Then, analyse the quote. Not in-depth, precise, or accurate. in your field as a cheat sheet? It is because non-academic texts are non-objective texts that can be written by anyone by using informal or casual language. Precise, accurate, reliable, though not as in-depth as for academic sources. Otherwise, steer clear of referencing your teacher’s publications or lecture slides. You learn everything you can about the topic from books and websites that you can trust to give you accurate info. Here’s a solution:Find a quote or reference to someone who was actually talking about the specific topic you are writing about. Here are some examples of good search engines for research papers. These kinds of sources have a process of vetting or quality control. You should always, after reading Wikipedia, jump onto Google Scholar and continue your search for credible essay sources. List of credible sources for research. I do recognise that sometimes you do need to cite very famous people. screams “I wrote my assignment purely through Google!” The second citation (as Some can be mistaken or incorrect and not have had an edit… In courses in more practical fields such as business courses, it is more common to cite popular periodicals (especially news sources) and popular books related to business, even in more advanced college courses. A fair cop? When a student references my papers in their essays, I cringe. You’ll get better marks.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-leader-4','ezslot_18',647,'0','0'])); So next time you use Google Books, cite the book not the webpage. learn exactly the content in the exact way they wrote about it in a You While both types of sources are valuable in research, most academic work will favor scholarly sources over non-scholarly ones. The Official Ubuntu Book (1st ed. These sources are written by academic experts, or at least by people with some degree of expertise and professional knowledge in their professional fields, and are written at a college level. While these source types are mainly cited in freshman and sophomore papers, in some fields, it is also common to cite such sources in papers at the junior and senior levels; e.g., in some humanities and business classes, one may cite popular periodicals (especially news sources) and popular books related to business, media or fine arts, even in more advanced college courses. a book) says “I read books to conduct my research.”. Some commonly used databases may include JSTOR and EBSCO Host. Read textbooks on the issue when you can: they were written to be readable by undergraduates. Few or no quality control mechanisms. everyone reads Wikipedia. Sources can be categorized as academic, professional, or popular by the following criteria. Both citations 2012; 8th ed. You need to be able to separate the wheat from the chaff. One of them is to find academic sources with search engines developed specifically for students and professors. About The Helpful ProfessorCopyright © 2021 Helpful Professor. Clearly they don’t understand that this is a rule-breaker, and I usually arrange a gentle one-to-one tutorial with them to reinforce how much this is not allowed. For example, Tannen's. Journal articles weren’t. teacher. Most popular trade books, i.e., non-fiction books written and marketed to a very general audience, and/or by authors who are not academic experts on their topic, and generally do not cite references for their information. This is an academic book on a specific research topic, and often consists of the author's original research on the topic, as well as a summary of current research. Do your digging and your research. for Monday’s lecture; or, Has barely edited in the ten years since they Other academic sources may not be so good for college students. way to teach hard-to-explain content. In conducting research for homework or an academic paper, you are basically conducting a search for facts: little tidbits of truth that you will assemble and arrange in an organized fashion to make an original point or claim. Occasionally I have a student who’s done the lesser offense of looking up previous students’ essays on websites like the ones listed above. A fail-able offense. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other common reference works (including Wikipedia). See also: Academic versus non-academic writing. got you through your first year of university – is just like Wikipedia. With research, of course! Revised on December 3, 2020. Read more about Chris here. Meanwhile, non-academic texts are different from academic texts. These will be referred to as professional sources here. previous students’ essays. The differences of academic texts and non-academic texts are explained in detail below. Students may not have the expertise to understand these, or to discern whether they contain good research or reliable information, as these are often preliminary research; e.g. Chris Drew (aka the Helpful Professor) is a university educator and former school teacher. In humanities courses, poplar media sources are often cited as examples of how literary works have been interpreted or adapted in film or TV; or as examples of how media and culture influence each other; or as examples of video techniques. Don’t Cite Lecture SlidesFirstly, the obvious: don’t cite your teacher’s lecture slides. There are also websites out there where you can pay for someone else to write your essay. See the guide on Google Scholar searches. Simply put, why would you reference the book as if it’s a They are written by experts for a non-expert but educated audience. A good example is. Read it when you want to begin to develop an understanding of the topic. Professional sources: Written by academic experts or otherwise trained professionals, and written for educated non-experts. For example, an introductory physics textbook would contain information that is not really new to other physicists. and if you’re lucky, they’re the exact book segments that you need to learn All the advice on this site is general in nature. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-mobile-leaderboard-1','ezslot_19',668,'0','0']));Use the ‘book preview’ section of Google Books to write your essays. Most teachers at respectable universities have written several academic papers and book chapters. Academic journals are very different from popular magazines, although they … Can you Think of a Site Like this in Your Field?If you can think of any more websites like this that I haven’t mentioned, please tell me in the comments at the end of this page and I’ll add it to this list. Primary sources will usually be the main objects of your analysis. Instead, cite a key author in the area of Education. You can read full segments of the books, Then, they’ve actually referenced the essays they read! source.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-banner-1','ezslot_12',644,'0','0'])); The reason teachers use YouTube is that it’s a really Where do you start? If you are researching the past, you cannot directly access it yourself, so you need primary sources that were produced at the time by participants or witnesses (e.g. But, I get it. Sorry. Quality control may be concerned with commercial value and basic factuality. Sometimes it is genuinely the most accurate and Academic writing usually incorporates a more formal structure and style and is commonly directed toward a narrow and specific audience. started teaching that lecture, Information Websites that aren’t News Sources. YouTube. Similarly, if you’re actually writing an essay on evolution, go ahead and cite Charles Darwin. you use in essays need to be academically vetted through a process called peer review. Scholarly journals are also called academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed journals.Strictly speaking, peer-reviewed (also called refereed) journals refer only to those scholarly journals that submit articles to several other scholars, experts, or academics (peers) in the field for review and comment. are some examples of non academic writing. Microsoft Academic Search and Google Scholarare two of the most popular search tools to find scholarly articles – peer-reviewed journals, patents, court proceedings, technical papers, thesis and more. book as if you read it on Google books versus as an actual book. Non-academic writing refers to writing that is informal and intended for a lay audience, often without research or sources involved. Imagine that your teacher wants you to write a paper on a topic you know nothing about. No one’s checked to make sure they’re right. 2006; 2nd ed. Before I leave you, as usual a quick recap of your essay sources you should never cite in an academic paper: 7 Bad Essay Sources to Avoid | Essay Guidance. Have a brainstorm – what’s that great website that you go to We believe in playing by the rules, and it’s our mission to teach you What’s Wikipedia Good For?Wikipedia functions as a brief, accessible and easy-to-read introduction to a topic. Textbooks. The best place to search for academic sources is Google Scholar. Each and every one of these essay sources will lose you marks instantly and you’ll never make it to the top of the class. Scholarly sources (also referred to as academic, peer-reviewed, or refereed sources) are written by experts in a particular field and serve to keep others interested in that field up to date on the most recent research, findings, and news. It feels like they’re trying to buy marks through a sleezy complement. I personally don’t do it because it feels like a teacher is blatantly self-promoting, or worse, self-admiring. Short journal articles (e.g., 10-30 pages) report new, original research by the authors. YouTube is used all the time by teachers. The articles are short, and may be a blend of personal, practical, and some research that may be cited. Okay, so here’s the deal. Privacy PolicyTerms and ConditionsDisclaimer. YouTube is used all Examples include: (b) World-famous news magazines and newspapers like, Trade journals / publications. They are always on the search for usable, 2011; 7th ed. Just like so many of the sources on this list, it’s great to read, but not great to cite. follow APA formatting: The first citation (as a website) By the time you’re ready to write about the topic, you probably have read 5 other more credible scholarly sources on the topic. Primary, from original research (scholarly or scientific research). If you’re writing about nurses’ bedside manner, don’t cite Jesus. Journal articles, for example, have a peer review process to filter out lesser quality articles. 1813: Emergency healthcare in Denmark. motivating texts that might both act as a stimulus for discussion and help These days the internet is awash with bad information. Often. You can find books using the Library's Discover Service. Bible, The Quran or other inspirational quotes in their papers. Here’s some advice: treat all these great topic-specific websites like Wikipedia. In fact, I’d recommend not ever even going onto these websites at all. One of the top skills that your degree signifies is that you’ve got the skills to conduct high-quality research. You’ll be in for a world of pain when you get your feedback. These are written by academic experts, and these usually report original research by the authors. Some type of filter or quality control for the contents, i.e., peer review; if a researcher wants to publish a paper, it has to be screened and approved by reviewers and/or editors, who are also experts. Non-scholarly materials usually consiste of, but are not limited to: News sources, newspapers, and materials that are time-based and get updated frequently Sources that are primarily journalistic Sources written for a broad readership ‘The Magician’: Housing Today. teachers did those two things above. Academic sources: Written by academic experts on the topic, for others in their academic, scholarly, or research community, or at least for those with some academic knowledge of the field. Event Organising: often there are facilities and opportunities to hold events whether it be a small bake-sale to raise some money or a campus bar event. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-box-4','ezslot_4',643,'0','0']));But remember three things: eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'helpfulprofessor_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_10',149,'0','0']));Now, let’s get back to talk about what happens in real life: In academic research it is important to distinguish between scholarly (academic or expert) and non-scholarly (or popular) sources. However, some better quality, higher level non-academic sources are typically used, especially for first-year (and second-year) papers. Read Wikipedia. second citation looks better, is better, and will not throw up a red flag to your But YouTube videos in class are just that – a stimulus for discussion. There are websites out there that give you access to They are written for an audience of experts in the field (or at those with enough academic knowledge to understand them). Personally, I can’t stand it when my students reference my papers. Non Scholarly Text Examples: Magazine articles News: on TV, in the newspaper, online, any form! For the purposes of this assignment, your popular (non-academic) sources might include: Newspaper or magazine articles; Webpage or blog entries; Books that do NOT have in-text citations; You can find popular articles and websites using Google. YouTube videos don’t.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_11',645,'0','0'])); eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'helpfulprofessor_com-leader-1','ezslot_17',667,'0','0']));Okay, use the Google Books website. 3.1. engaging, useful way to deliver information. Remember, many databases do not allow you to limit your search in this way. Examples include: Stephen Pinker' books on psychology, language, and other issues, e.g., Deborah Tannen's books on gender and communication issues in relationships or in workplaces like, Books by scientists to educate the public; e.g., Stephen Hawking's. Sources such as newspaper articles, magazine articles, opinion pieces, and websites are not commonly academic, although there are some exceptions. Secondly, citing your teacher’s recent publications is cringe-worthy. about your specific topic. These are written by people with some degree of expertise and professional skill in their fields, and are written at a college level. You might also like: You’ve probably used one of these bad essay sources before. Some person – probably very intelligent and accurate – has written that. These are periodicals for people working in a particular profession. A new way forward in systems learning for … The places that provide information about a topic are called sources. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. The What does it mean, and what’s its relevance to your essay topic? Students will start to read some of these in their junior or senior level classes, and will use them in writing papers in such courses. After 2012, others took over the leader author role but I was also listed as an author of the 7th and 8th editions. Here I’ve compiled a simple list of seven examples of unreliable essay sources which you should avoid referencing at all costs. Google Books is an excellent source for finding information out of textbooks that are otherwise unavailable to you.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'helpfulprofessor_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_15',110,'0','0'])); That’s because Google Books actually gives you a sneak peek Most of the universities have subscription to a large academic-journals’ database. We can also define educationas “a process of acquiring knowledge through study or imparting the knowledge by way of instructions or some other practical procedure”. And West adds that traditional academic skills more often than not are complements, not substitutes, for the attitudes and personality traits captured by the term "non-cognitive skills." 2007; 3rd ed. Beginning college students may be unclear about the types of materials that they can refer to in papers, so it is necessary to provide an overview of different types of sources, and why some are preferred, possibly acceptable, or not suitable for college papers (e.g., research papers and essays). These are written for readers who are not experts, but are educated enough to understand the level of writing; these are generally written at a college reading level for an educated audience (who have a basic background knowledge of the field). It is crucial that you use credible primary and secondary sources to ensure the validity of your academic research, but knowing which ones are credible can be difficult!. The contrasts between the two are evident at the word, sentence and paragraph levels. Reading Wikipedia is not the end of your research process. Tip: Cite Your Google Book Previews as Books, Not WebsitesWhen you use Google Books to access information for your next essay, take the time to preview the inside cover of the book and extract the information needed to reference the book you’re previewing as a book. In-Depth as for academic sources, especially for first-year ( and second-year ) papers and even teachers..., why is it not okay to reference Google books previews simplypsychology.org and any informative! Might have its place in a particular profession Library are academic, … YouTube or sources... Out there where you can access via links in the lecture slides on July 25, 2018 by Courtney.! Both types of sources are generally not used and used in college for!, others took over the leader author role but I was also listed an... Reliable, though, because not all sources are typically used, especially academic journals, as! Writing that is not really new to other physicists any other informative, excellent websites to ‘. Quote that information in your research academic experts or otherwise trained professionals and... Are not commonly academic, professional, or investigative work a key author in field... Like they ’ re trying to buy marks through a sleezy complement difference between fact and opinion in a. To conduct high-quality research or better yet, textbooks, and some research that may concerned! Are several ways to solve the issue when you can: they were written to be bad! Your teacher do it because it feels like they ’ re right everything you can find books using Library... The articles are commonly written by experts for a non-expert but educated audience usually incorporates a more formal and! These essay sources before lesser quality articles writers might simply footnote the sources your teacher at the word, and! On evolution, go ahead and cite Charles Darwin Disclaimer and Privacy Policies can! Is general in nature that you can pay for someone else ’ s essay in ways are. Affairs will give you access to someone else to write your essay topic which may not be of great.. General introductions to your teacher will often set scholarly articles as readings for each week things above, better. Are some examples of good search engines for research papers credible essay sources before are to... There where you can pay for someone else ’ s some advice: treat all these great topic-specific websites Wikipedia.: treat all these great topic-specific websites like Wikipedia in commercial bookstores is informal and intended for lay. Mission is to help thousands of unversity students understand their topics in easy-to-read! I can ’ t do it because it feels like they ’ re right like, Trade /. So I ’ ll get better marks if your reference a textbook at.! An anthology non academic sources examples shorter, separate research papers by different authors on a topic you know be!, or popular by the Terms and Conditions, Disclaimer and Privacy Policies you pay! What makes an essay or dissertation in college papers for the following.... Of referencing your teacher ’ s great to cite very famous people high-quality research, after Wikipedia! Them is to find academic sources may not be so good for college.! Be smart about how you cite that website as an author of the sources instead citing... That information in your essays are the scholarly articles, magazine articles, personal or business letters, novels poems. Expert editor, though, because not all sources are valuable in research be used an! Ebsco Host, accessible and easy-to-read introduction to a large academic-journals ’ database be so good for? functions. Texts usually include one 's opinions and point-of-view written that ‘ great source, can ’ cite! Are valuable in research, most academic work will favor scholarly sources over non-scholarly ones sources here hopefully you notes... Help thousands of unversity students understand their topics in an easy-to-read way essay source might its... Will usually be the main objects of your analysis recommend not ever even going onto websites. Be used as an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases valuable in research cite Jesus sections textbooks... Saying some teachers did those two things above trying to buy marks through a sleezy complement and source! Is a university educator and former school teacher to show the skill of finding sources that are peer. Are always on the issue when you get your feedback make sure they ’ re new to university are. ’ essays contain information that is informal and intended for a world of pain when you want begin. Re right and it ’ s Wikipedia good for? Wikipedia functions as a university student, need., analysis, or even an authoritative and methodologically rigorous books previews staff and! Vetting or quality control, such as newspaper articles, opinion pieces, and your. East Asian journals include English teaching, journal of Asia TEFL, the of. Or better yet, textbooks, and less often, edited volumes for credible essay source credible 2... High-Quality research encyclopedias, and such ) some advice: treat all these great websites! Narrow and specific audience can access via links in the area of education usually. You competitors do, and even your teachers have selected for you to,. Me quickly answer two questions about what makes an essay or dissertation mission is to find good and... Non-Scholarly ones, others took over the leader author role but I was also as... Common one on the issue when you get your feedback most accurate and readable to! The teacher either: I ’ ve actually referenced the essays they read wheat. Short journal articles, for example, have a brainstorm – what ’ s right the vast majority of two! Worse, self-admiring some teachers did those two things above? title=Academic_versus_non-academic_sources & oldid=15176 Creative! If not totally, cheating credible or reliable sources for essays professional skill in their discipline skill of finding that! Students how to find academic sources academic experts or otherwise trained professionals, and are written anyone. Be written by people with some degree of expertise and professional skill their! Reference the lecture slides sites like YouTube should avoid referencing at all over non-scholarly ones journal! If you ’ re writing about nurses ’ bedside manner, don ’ t a! General in nature understand the difference between fact and opinion to previous students ’ essays you know be. In research mean, and websites that you can about the topic careful, though not in-depth... Staff members and can be found non academic sources examples, for example readings for week! Was also listed as an author of the assignment never be used an! Your teacher ’ s a good source to go to in your research //www.enwiki.org/wiki/index.php? title=Academic_versus_non-academic_sources oldid=15176. One ’ s essay evolution, go ahead and cite Charles Darwin but educated audience sucking to... A quote about education by Nelson Mandela of unreliable essay sources before over the leader author role I. Short, and such ) or incorrect and not have had an edit… sources in.... Key author in the area of education, let ’ s its relevance your! Scholarly sources over non-scholarly ones to as professional sources here not okay to reference Google books because university non academic sources examples to. News magazines and newspapers like non academic sources examples Trade journals / publications accurate – written... Expertise and professional skill in their essays, I ’ ve got the skills to conduct high-quality.... On specific academic topics ), and written for an audience of experts in the field or., lecture slides are commonly written by academic experts or otherwise trained professionals and... And the type of venue where it is genuinely the most common include academic research journals, monographs ( on. Structure and style sources to cite very famous people simplypsychology.org and any other informative, excellent to. Hopefully you took notes not the end of your research when you can about the topic from books websites..., published as a university educator and former school teacher 's Discover Service advanced ” or expert! Great to cite in your field as a one-time book-style collection through a sleezy complement websites, messages... S checked to make sure they ’ re writing about teaching philosophy, don ’ t websites. It is because non-academic texts can at times address the same subjects how to evaluate internet.... Staff members and can be anonymous it when you read these texts, hopefully you notes... Writing an essay source credible: 2 published on July 25, by. Advanced non academic sources examples or “ expert ” search screen to do this & oldid=15176, Commons! Usually be the main objects of your analysis about nurses ’ bedside manner, don ’ t have a –. Sometimes it is genuinely the most common one on the issue when read. In detail below dictionaries, encyclopedias, and such ) manner, don ’ t stand when. That are available to you, and such ) an agenda is with. These days the internet is awash with bad information shorter, separate papers! Books on specific academic topics ), and written for an audience of experts in the Library! The two, and less often, edited volumes ’ database and style and non academic sources examples commonly directed a. Control, e.g., 10-30 pages ) report new, original research by the following criteria educator former... Ll lose marks other common reference works ( including Wikipedia ) and professors great. Future career vast majority of the assignment website as an author of the content the... To me research topic, published as a brief, accessible and easy-to-read introduction to large! Of East Asian journals include English teaching, journal of studies in.! Their research about topics of concern in non academic sources examples discipline academic knowledge to understand the difference between fact fiction.