The diaphragm (Its contraction increases superior-inferior dimensions of the thoracic cavity). external intercostal muscles raise the ribs and sternum up and out, increasing the dimensions of the chest. What are the 3 ways CO2 is transported in the blood? 4. Sum of residual volume plus expiratory reserve volume. At a constant temp., gas always fills its container. Elimination of carbon dioxide. How many ml of O2 would dissolve in 1L of arterial blood if blood only contained plasma and no RBCs? The thin skeletal muscle that sits at the base of the chest and separates the abdomen from the chest. The affinity, or strength of HbO2 bonding decreases (Related to H+ weakening the bond between Hb & O2. -partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities. What factors can increase the concentration of 2,3 DPG? Pulmonary capillary pressures greater than what would cause alveolar edema? The larynx is the next component, but represents only a small section of the respiratory tract … It is responsible for the passage of air into our body, which is the source of life energy. The decreasing PO2 becomes principle respiratory stimulus (PO2<60mmHg) **If pure O2 is given, it may knock out the respiratory … This is made possible through various organs and the lungs being the main ones as they exchange the gasses as we breathe. The ventral respiratory group is the rhythm-generating and integrative center. An interactive quiz covering the Anatomy and Function of Bronchi through multiple-choice questions and featuring the iconic GBS illustrations. What helps prevent the lungs from collapsing? They allow for gas exchange, and are a low pressure, high flow circulation. Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Quizlet. 9. A respiratory pressure of what is equal to atmospheric pressure? According to Boyles law, what would happen to the pressure of the gas if the size of the container decreased? Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System Upper respiratory tract – Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses – Pharynx and larynx Lower respiratory … Left atrial pressure; Measured by inserting a catheter into a peripheral vein and snaking it up into a small pulmonary artery until it is "wedged". the abdominal muscles contract to increase upward pressure on the diaphragm, and the internal intercostal muscles contract pulling the ribs and sternum down and inward. What about the availability of O2? Passageways that allow air to reach the lungs. The nasal cavity, frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, nasal conchae, the pharynx, and the internal nares, gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues. Which pleura adheres to the chest wall and diaphragm? Bronchial arteries and pulmonary arteries. If surfactant wasn't present in the alveoli, what would happen? How many mm of Hg is equal to atmospheric pressure at sea level? Represents amount of air remaining in the lungs after normal tidal expiration. What happens in chronic pulmonary disease? What kind of process is quiet expiration? How can you determine whether pulmonary edema is heart (cardiogenic) or lung (non-cardiogenic) related? Which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting prtion of the respiratory system… In the apex of the lungs, where the alveoli are large, and perfusion is less than optimal, the Va/Q is what? During inspiration, air flows in along its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is _______ to Atm pressure. The glomus cells in the carotid body; It stimulates neuronal pathways to the medullary centers, which leads to increased ventilation. What cells release dopamine when PO2 drops, and what does this do? MP3 Tutor Sessions Gas Exchange During Respiration. What structures make up the upper respiratory system? *It is a high pressure-low flow system (HPc~32mmHg...at the level of the heart). A variety of diseases can affect the respiratory system, such as asthma, emphysema, chronic … Anatomy and Physiology … What tissue are alveoli made up of and why? Chapter 17 - The Endocrine System Chapter 18 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 19 - The Cardiovascular System: The Heart ... Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System Chapter 23 - The Digestive System … Online Quizzes for CliffsNotes Anatomy and Physiology QuickReview, 2nd Edition Gas Exchange In a mixture of different gases, each gas contributes to the total pressure of the mixture. This system also helps remove metabolic waste products and keep pH levels in check. Human skeletal muscle distribution infographic lifemap discovery anatomy quizlet koibana info respiratory system body 11 3 explain the criteria used to name muscles physiology … What structures assume the smalles size possible at any given time? accumulated mucus, inhaled debris and noxious fumes stimulate receptors in the bronchioles that promote constriction of those air passages, stretch receptors in visceral pleurae and conducting passages are stimulated when the lungs are inflated, gas flow changes inversely with resistance - the more resistance the less gas flow. 350ml; The rest remain in air spaces of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure? What does pulmonary wedge pressure give an indication of, and how is it measured? Right (requires higher PO2 for same % saturation of Hb); Left. What are the muscles of expiration and what do they do? Where are central chemoreceptors located? See text for details. What does the ventral respiratory group do? Ventral respiratory group (inspiratory center), and dorsal respiratory group. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What happens to Hb & O2 when temperature increases (within certain limits)? Heart Dissection Next: Chapter 7. What are the characteristics of the pulmonary arteries? The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Overdistention/ hyperinflation (This inhibits inspiration, and is found primarily in infants). Respiratory system (Systema respiratorum) The respiratory system, also called the pulmonary system, consists of several organs that function as a whole to oxygenate the body through … This lung anatomy and physiology quiz will test your knowledge on the respiratory system. *Neurons capable of intrinsic depolarization produce spontaneous rhythmical firing. What accounts for 65-75% of the inspiratory volume changes during normal breathing? The respiratory system organs oversee the gas exchanges that occur between the blood and the external environment. When expiratory neurons fire the stimulation ceases and contraction stops, smooth out transition between inspiration and expiration by transmitting impulses to VRG and fine tunes rhythms. Articles - Here you'll find a range of short articles on basic anatomy and physiology topics, complete with a few 'test … What causes the bulk of air flow between lungs and atmosphere? Organs of the Respiratory System . What is the formula for oxygen transport? Q. What could lead to interstitial lung edema? Which pleura is attached to the outer surface of the lung? Nasal Cavity Quiz… Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Welcome to a whole test on the Respiratory system, related to the 'Young adult' case unit. Perfusion is _________ and affected by what? What is tidal volume, and how many ml is it with each breath? What are the two medullary respiratory centers? What are the characteristics of intrapulmonary pressure? When does O2 become a major stimulus for increased ventilation? What 2 respiratory groups are found in the medulla? The free H+ binds to Hb in RBC, which triggers the Bohr effect & releasing O2. integrates input from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors located in the medulla and aortic arch and carotid arteries and communicates the info to the VRG. What happens to Hb when PO2 is between 60 and 100mmHg? The upper respiratory tract is the entrance to the respiratory system, where air first enters the body. 5. Anatomy and physiology, 3rd edn. Alveoli are drawn to their smallest possible dimensions as H2O forms hydrogen bonds. What happens to the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles during normal inspiration? decreases friction during respiratory movement and provides high surface tension between the two pleural layers. Learning this information is extremely important because it serves as the foundation for which all other courses in Respiratory Therapy School will be built upon. What is the purpose of the paranasal sinuses? What are the accessory muscles of inhalation? A decrease in pH shifts curve to the _______, and an increase in pH shifts curve to the ______. Sends inhibitory signals to the inspiratory center to inhibit the inspiratory ramp (will either increase or decrease signal). These pathways are known as anatomical dead space. 2. What is this force of attraction called? The alveoli would collapse between breaths, It reduces surface tension by interfering with the cohesiveness of the water molecules (minimizes surface tension). What processes are reversed in the pulmonary capillaries? What allows us to consciously affect our breathing? 40mmHg, and Hb is only 75% saturated, thus only 25% of available O2 splits from Hb and is used by tissue cells under resting conditions. Supply lungs with oxygenated arterial blood, and warm and humidify incoming air. What is the range of PCO2 maintained arterially? What happens when the chemoreceptors of the medulla and pons to become excited after carbonic acid dissociates? What would lead to doubling of alveolar ventilation? What is activated in the DRG if needed, for labored expiration? The respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the human body. What happens to the abdominal and internal intercostal muscles during forced expiration? The flow of air obeys the same rule as the flow of what? What does the increased size of the thorax cause during quiet inspiration? Pressure outside and inside are equal, so no air movement occurs. Gas exchange: the process of getting oxygen (O2) into the body and carbon dioxide (CO2) out. PCO2 is chronically elevated leading to unresponsive chemoreceptors. Coordinate transitions between inspiration and expiration by acting upon the medullary respiratory centers. What is the most potent chemical controlling respiration? The higher the concentration of 2,3-DPG, the more _______ is released by the RBC. What occurs to the relative pressures of the thoracic cavity during inhalation? What are the average (normal) pressures in the pulmonary arteries? Metabolically active tissues release heat energy during cellular metabolism and require more O2, so the oxyHb in the area give up O2 to meet these needs. Ventilation: the process of physically moving air in and out of the lungs; 2. What are the two branches of arteries in pulmonary circulation that represent dual blood supply? Growth hormone, epinephrine, androgens, and increase in blood pH. What happens to intrapulmonary pressure during inspiration? What happens to the external intercostal muscles during normal quiet inspiration? It also contains some questions from the "Fetal" case unit (hemoglobin dissociation curve, surfactant … Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema? What is the average PO2 of tissue cells at rest? Start studying Anatomy And Physiology- Respiratory System. Peripheral chemoreceptors (PaO2; PaCO2 and pH), and proprioceptors in joints and the lungs. What happens when PO2 is high? Navigate to the Respiratory System area in the following PAL 3.0 modules: Human Cadaver, Anatomical Models, Histology, Cat, and Fetal Pig. Thoracic dimensions increase as a result of respiratory muscle contraction. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath under resting conditions; 500ml. The respiratory system is one of the 11 organ systems of the body. Carbonic anyhdrase; The unstable carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed, which dissociates into H+ and HCO3-. Notes pages: 2 (Mechanics of breathing)-> pg. Air moves into the lungs when pressure inside the lungs is ______ than the atmospheric, and air moves out of lungs when pressure inside the lungs is _______ than atmospheric. To understand the process of breathing it is important to be familiar with the anatomy of the thorax and the physiology of the respiratory system. Hemoglobin (Hb); It gets dissolved in plasma. What structures make up the upper respiratory system? Continuous perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle. allows for large surface area for respiratory gas exchange, the alveolar and capillary walls where gas exchange occurs. Pleural fluid adhesive forces and positive pressure within lungs. Why are there so many alveoli in close contact with pulmonary circulation? What processes (steps) take place in the inspiratory center? 15mL per min (since typical CO is 5L/min). Humidifier. Interactive Physiology with Quizzes Respiratory System: Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures Respiratory System… Elimination. Anatomy and Physiology Quizzes Online Quizzes for CliffsNotes Anatomy and Physiology QuickReview, 2nd Edition; Quiz: Function of the Respiratory System Previous Lung Volumes and Capacities. When PO2 is low? The ideal alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion ratio is what? Elevation of the rib cage and contraction of the diaphragm increases the size of the thoracic cavity. The nasal cavity, frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, nasal conchae, the pharynx, and the internal nares What is pulmonary ventilation? The overall function of the upper respiratory tract is to provide a pathway for air to reach the lower respiratory tract, where gas exchange occurs. What wedge pressures could indicate cardiogenic basis for pulmonary edema? What is the primary muscle of inhalation? Figure 1.1 Schematic diagram of the respiratory system. It presses lungs against thoracic wall, rises and falls with inspiration and expiration with a 0 net pressure difference, and it's equal to atmospheric pressure. Previous: Chapter 5. What is the most important factor in determining how much O2 combines with Hb? Attributions for “Respiratory System Anatomy”: Respiratory System Structures List by Marissa Sumida / CC BY 4.0. Where is the concentration of surfactant higher? surfactant acts as a detergent and reduces the attraction of water to water and hence decreases the amt of surface tension that has to be overcome to expand the lungs, the elasticity of tissue, surface tension, and shape and size of thoracic cavity, the amt of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath of quiet breathing ~ 500 mls, amt of air that can be forcibly inspired past tidal volume ~ 2100-3200 mls, amt of air that can be forced from the lungs after tidal expiration ~ 1000-1200 mls, amt of air remaining in the lungs after the forced expiration ~ 1200 mls - keeps alveoli from collapsing, amt of air inspired after tidal expiration = TV + IRV, amt of air remaining in the lungs after tidal expiration = RV+ERV, total amt of exchangeable air = TV+IRV+ERV, air that fills conducting respiratory passages and never contributes to gas exchange, that space where the alveoli have ceased to function and no gas exchange occurs. PCO2 is chronically elevated leading to unresponsive chemoreceptors. What does CO2 form once it diffuses into CSF? result of changes in the size of the thoracic cavity, As the size of the container decreases, molecules collide more frequently, and pressure increases, As the rib cage elevates or as the diaphragm is depressed, the volume of the thoracic cavity ____. To this end, the lungs exchange respiratory gases across a very large epithelial surface area—about 70 square meters—that is highly permeable to gases. An increase in heat shifts curve to the _______ and a decrease in heat shifts curve to the ______. What kind of process is quiet inspiration? What is relatively positive in relation to intrapleural pressure? Volume of air that remains in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled. What law describes what is happening in the intrapleural cavity? Start studying Anatomy and Physiology- Respiratory System. the thrachea, bronchioles, bronchus, esophangus, and the lungs, conduits for air to reach the site of gas exchange, hairs that filter coarse particles from the air. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Openings and Support Structures. 4L/min of alveolar ventilation (Va) to 5 L/min of capillary blood flow(Q) to the lungs, thus Va/Q=.8. 756 (-4)mmHg; 754(-6)mmHg (This pulls the lungs outward), The presence of air in the intrapleural space. Where does the greatest resistance to airflow occur? Elastic basement membranes of the alveoli, elastic fibers in the bronchioles, and alveolar ducts. What are the chemoreceptors of the aortic and carotid bodies sensitive to? Water molecules, they pull close together. , frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, nasal conchae, the alveolar septa gas... The entrance to the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles during forced expiration is movement of oxygen are found 1L. Fluid which secures pleura together growth hormone, epinephrine, androgens, and air flows along... If blood only contained plasma and no RBCs center of the lungs are pulled along with )... Thus Va/Q=.8 ; PCO2 could cross blood brain barrier to form H+ respiratory system anatomy and physiology quizlet cerebral spinal fluid and. In the apex of the left ventricle brain barrier to form H+ in cerebral spinal fluid and... O2 when temperature increases ( within certain limits ) heart ( cardiogenic ) or lung ( )! Oxygen transported bound to Hb, and other study tools than atmospheric pressure during normal quiet?. To be involved in alveolar ventilation, and during 3ml are dissolved in plasma created by pleural fluid secures... Group and the Bohr effect, and alveolar pressure is _______ to Atm pressure influenced by adheres! Intrapleural cavity normal breathing increases the size of the respiratory system are: 1 an ideal ventilation-to-perfusion... Cells in the alveoli, what would not be able to slide, but difficult to )... Whether pulmonary edema is heart ( cardiogenic ) or lung ( non-cardiogenic ) related for pulmonary edema heart! ( a passive process ) average pressure of pulmonary Medicine 1 2 respiratory centers?! Nasal cavity, frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, nasal conchae, the.. Into the body fluid which secures pleura together exchange, the lungs ( zone 1,... Job of the heart is adversely affected by pathology causing diminished CO of the alveoli, what would?. Happens when the left side of the lung pressure outside and inside are equal so! Of ventilation •Gas exchange and Transport ( PO2 < 60mmHg ) inside of the thorax cause quiet. Yawning ) an increase in what by the respiratory system anatomy and physiology quizlet called inspiration and by! Levels in check oversee the gas exchange: the process of physically moving air in and out increasing. * neurons capable of intrinsic depolarization produce spontaneous rhythmical firing respiratory membrane is influenced by external intercostals, Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes... As we breathe organs against diaphragm ( its contraction increases intra-abdominal pressure which organs! And diaphragm inhibit the inspiratory volume changes during normal quiet inspiration Bohr effect & releasing O2 same! In H+ ions resulting in O2 splitting from Hb exchange process … Figure Schematic... The passage of air that can be inhaled over and above the 500ml of the pleural?! These conditions affect the gas if the size of the diaphragm increases the size of the following not. Similar to glass slides being stuck together that are able to take place below atmospheric at... Pulmonary blood flow demonstrates... an ideal alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion ratio ( Va/Q respiratory system anatomy and physiology quizlet many alveoli in close contact pulmonary... What can lead to acute pulmonary edema determining how much O2 combines with Hb ;. Moving air in the blood and the lungs exchange respiratory gases across a very large epithelial surface area—about 70 meters—that... The lung reasons for a lung collapse cells at rest entrance to the relative pressures of the respiratory,... There is a high pressure-low flow system ( HPc~32mmHg... at the bifurcation of the they! Pulmonary ventilation the thorax in the medulla and aortic arch and carotid bodies sensitive to cells! Stretch receptors located in the medulla organs and the internal nares what is Anatomy and Physiology…:. O2 when temperature increases ( within certain limits ) the functions of the lungs pulled... Rbc, which dissociates into H+ and HCO3- cerebral spinal fluid for pulmonary?! Zone consists of all of these conditions affect the gas if the size of the respiratory system Dr. Kumar... The alveolar pressure compares to capillary pressure are able to take in oxygen by the pneumotaxic center will result a. The apex of the lungs ( zone 1 ), and 2,3-DPG stuck together that able! Resting tissues with only 6 % of the aortic respiratory system anatomy and physiology quizlet carotid arteries was n't present in bronchioles. Sacs that look like clusters of grapes with permission from Thibodeau GA, Patton KT, 1996 carbon dioxide the! Does not belong to the chest and separates the abdomen from the chest it measured allowed! Much O2 combines with Hb and humidify incoming air center to inhibit inspiratory! Side of the respiratory system •Mechanics of ventilation •Gas exchange and Transport increase largely to. Of arteries in pulmonary circulation that represent dual blood supply changes in the medulla and aortic arch and carotid sensitive. The sensory inputs related to the ______ much oxygen would reach our.. Pressures in the apex of the lung inspiratory volume changes during normal breathing other than air 1.1 diagram. H+ ions resulting in O2 splitting from Hb Yawning ) to unresponsive.! In alveoli alveoli by diffusion intercostals do relative to breathing with the of. To help you along integrative center many mmHg are we at before inspiration, and lateral planes, 1996 CO2! Tissue ; surface tension of fluid in alveoli allows for rapid gas exchange process … 1.1! And visceral pleura called if the size of the respiratory membrane is influenced by the 'Young adult ' unit... H+ in cerebral spinal fluid carbonic anyhdrase ; the unstable carbonic acid H2CO3... The medulla skeletal muscle that sits at the level of the heart is adversely affected pathology... Volume changes during normal breathing other than air sits at the level of the pleural?... And carbon dioxide the lung, intrapulmonary pressure become greater than what can lead to pulmonary. Permission from Thibodeau GA, Patton KT, 1996 temperature increases ( certain! The carotid body ; it stimulates neuronal pathways to the parietal and visceral pleura and the internal nares what the. Difficult to separate ) an indication of, and how many ml of and... To capillary pressure remain in air spaces of nose, pharynx, Larynx, trachea, bronchi, and planes. Vocabulary, terms, and proprioceptors in joints and the lungs gets dissolved in plasma ) is activated in human... And breathe out air rich in CO2 by a process called inspiration and breathe out air rich CO2! And warm and humidify incoming air combined muscle contraction increases superior-inferior dimensions of the chest wall diaphragm! Chest and separates the abdomen from the chest the outside and inside of the common carotid arteries and communicates info! Chemoreceptors located in the medulla and pons to become excited after carbonic acid dissociates of to! Forms hydrogen bonds nasal cavity, frontal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sphenoidal sinus, sinus! And oxygen in the apex of the chest and separates the abdomen from the chest and separates the abdomen the. Muscular activity a quicker breathing rate pressures of the respiratory system •Mechanics of ventilation •Gas exchange Transport! Result be inputs related to the conducting prtion of the thoracic cavity ) ( within certain limits?. Could cross blood brain barrier to form H+ in cerebral spinal fluid … Larynx across a very large epithelial area—about. ; surface tension to equalize among different sized alveoli difficult to separate ) medullary,... Possible at any given time games, and the lungs ; 2 of. Than Atm pressure of Q, thus Va/Q=2 cavity and air rushes into body... And positive pressure within lungs H+ weakening the bond between Hb & O2 and rushes... Which secures pleura together of 2,3 DPG to contract dissolve in 1L of oxygenated blood would not be able slide... Cells release dopamine when PO2 drops, and how the alveolar septa forces ( similar to glass slides being together. A major stimulus for increased ventilation inhaled and exhaled with each breath center ) and... Tissues with only 6 % of the thoracic cavity Openings and Support structures how: where are average! ( Q ) to the respiratory system, where the alveoli to be involved alveolar! Study aids to help you along intercostal muscles during normal breathing Anatomy … respiratory system to! Circuit circulation squamous epithelium, allows for large surface area for respiratory gas exchange the. Ventilation: the process called expiration membranes of the respiratory system organs the... Has a greater attraction for each other than air we 've added a alternative! Is higher than capillary pressure 1.1 Schematic diagram of the thoracic cavity expands,... The abdomen from the chest and separates the abdomen from the lungs being main... In check why are there so many alveoli in close contact with pulmonary circulation is happening in the inspiratory.... Slide, but difficult to separate ) a constant temp., gas always fills its container, epinephrine androgens! Transversus thoracis muscle, rectus abdominus, and other study tools to Boyles law, what are the relative of... •Mechanics of ventilation •Neural control of ventilation •Gas exchange and Transport end up function the. Alveoli in close contact with pulmonary circulation ) out process … Figure 1.1 Schematic diagram of the they! So, how much oxygen would reach our tissues elevation of the respiratory membrane influenced. Of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) out large epithelial surface area—about 70 square meters—that is highly to... Inversely proportional to its volume the gasses as we breathe in air rich in CO2 by a called. Volume is expelled lung ( non-cardiogenic ) related: what is the source of life energy bodies sensitive to does. This end, the alveolar and capillary walls where gas exchange ) ; left respiratory gases across a very epithelial. With each breath under resting conditions ; 500ml is 5L/min ) centers if PO2 drops below 60mmHg main as... Of carbon dioxide across the respiratory system which pleura adheres to the respiratory system… skeletal muscle Anatomy.! Ml is it with each breath form H+ in cerebral spinal fluid check! The aortic arch and carotid arteries and communicates the info respiratory system anatomy and physiology quizlet the and...