For example, it is not uncommon for patients to use socially unacceptable language and unusual tones of voice, or to show overly dependent or intrusive behavior. The encyclopedia of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The paper analyses the recent researches on the problem of schizophrenia. “Very well-written assignment, this writer followed all my requirements and is very prompt to reply to my questions. This is why existing treatment strategies are limited to psychosocial and psychological treatments and the administering of antipsychotic medications. Behavioral genetic studies of families, twins, and adopted offspring of schizophrenia patients indicate that an inherited vulnerability is involved in at least some cases of the disorder. Hallucinations are among the most subjectively distressing symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients. Get discount 10% for the first order. Here, you can get quality custom essays, as well as a dissertation, a research paper, or term papers … In the scale of this research I would like to analyse possible negative effects of exploitation of the topic in mass media and movies and receive the reaction of the population in this respect. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified into the general categories of positive and negative. Early treatment seems to be important in that the shorter the period between the onset of the patient’s symptoms and the first prescribed medication, the better the clinical outcome. The expert essay tutors at Nascent Minds will elaborate every single detail to you. Research Paper III I chose to write my research paper over Schizophrenia. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. Whenever you need help with your assignment, we will be happy to assist you. He also noted that a person could suffer from schizophrenia either in their early or later life. Our leading custom writing service provides custom written papers in 80+ disciplines. The theory that the human body could be possessed by evil spirits is the earliest theory of mental illnesses. Disorganized speech is when one’s speech is not easily understandable or is broken. Current theories of the role of dopamine in schizophrenia have focused on dopamine receptors. This is due, in part, to the availability today of better medical treatments. Some of the difficulties experienced by individuals with schizophrenia can be observed before the onset of the clinical symptoms. Other common signs include bizarre facial expressions, such as repeated grimacing or staring, and repeated peculiar gestures that often involve complex behavioral sequences. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder whose characteristics include hallucinations, delusional behavior, disorganized speech, social isolation, intellectual deterioration, and emotional blunting (Flack, Miller and Wiener, 2012). As research findings on the biochemical aspects of schizophrenia accumulate, it increasingly appears that the illness may involve multiple neurotransmitters, with different biochemical profiles for different patients. Most notable were reductions in the volume of certain brain regions, especially the hippocampus, and increases in the size of the ventricles. As with other symptoms of the psychosis, the manifestation of motor abnormalities varies among individuals. This sample Schizophrenia research paper features an outline, 1800+ words, and a list of credible references. It is especially unfortunate that tardive dyskinesia is sometimes irreversible when patients are withdrawn from neuroleptics. During this initial hospitalization, an extensive assessment is usually conducted to determine the most appropriate diagnosis. 22 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 6 sources. The treatment of mental illness in the middle ages was religion whereby patients were encouraged to confess their sins to God because it was believed that they were serving a punishment from Him. Our skillful essay writers supply writing and editing services for academic papers. 18:40. Through our website, students can request for help in a diverse range of subjects and disciplines. In a study, brain autopsies conducted on dead bodies revealed that dopamine receptors were in excess six-fold. The babies they delivered were diagnosed with increased schizophrenia. According to DSM-IV, patients must show two or more of the preceding five symptoms to meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. At the latter extreme, some exhibit catatonic immobility and assume unusual postures that are maintained for extended periods of time. That Nearctic nonattributive choose smarting a knowledgeable research paper about schizophrenia hammerheaded, in case … Disorganized schizophrenia is distinguished by extremely incoherent speech and behavior, as well as blunted or inappropriate affect. In creating your schizophrenia research paper outline, you create subheadings that have central themes with the topic you have chosen. One may also develop schizophrenia when they react to a particular experience or situation since the disorder may be carried. Some relatively consistent findings are that the brains of schizophrenia patients have abnormal frontal lobes and enlarged ventricles. It is also noteworthy that treatment for schizophrenia are symptoms-focused since the primary causes of the illness are yet to be known. Buy college essays >> Cheap academic paper⭐ . 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Unfortunately, the benefits of standard or typical antipsychotic drugs are often mitigated by side effects. In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), it is described as an illness that is characterized by psychotic symptoms and significant interpersonal or occupational dysfunction that persist for a period of at least 6 months. Before the introduction of antipsychotic medications in 1950, the majority of patients spent most of their lives in institutional settings. Research Paper on Schizophrenia | Schizophrenia | Substance Abuse. Consequently, patients who are on this medication must be monitored on a regular basis. The first person to use the term “schizophrenia” was Eugen Bleuler, a psychiatrist from Switzerland, in 1911. Posted by | Mag 21, 2020 | 0 comment. Similarly, postmortem studies of brain tissue have revealed irregularities in nerve cell formation and interconnections. The sociogenic hypothesis posits that situational factors associated with low social class, such as degrading treatment from society, low levels of education, and few opportunities for achievement and reward, produce stress that contributes to the risk for schizophrenia. Several other neurotransmitters have also been hypothesized to play a role in schizophrenia. For others, there are multiple episodes with periods of substantial symptom remission. If you would like to write a high quality research paper, ideas from this sample will give you a head start and the much needed inspiration. According to Flack, Miller and Wiener (2012), compared to the control group, children of women who were exposed to the virus during their first and third trimesters were not affected any higher. Schizophrenia: A life-course developmental perspective. Delusions of control is the belief that one is being manipulated by an external force, often a powerful individual or organization (e.g., the FBI) that has malevolent intent. However, social trends and advances in medical knowledge converged to produce greater sympathy for those with mental illness. Participants treated with PAK inhibitors, 3. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Laboratory studies of schizophrenia patients have revealed a variety of abnormalities, including irregularities in smooth pursuit eye movements, psychophysiological responses to sensory stimuli, and concentration. The chief goal was to foster introspection and self-understanding in patients. Wow. Although the possibilities are only a small percentage, genetics plays a role in research in their family or their close relatives. Some researchers have suggested that postnatal viral infection may also be relevant to schizophrenia, and that the illness may be caused by a long-acting virus. However, a patient would often die from bloodletting. Controlled studies using archival data sources, such as medical and school records or childhood home-movies, indicate that subtle differences are discernible as early as infancy in some patients. In recent years, family therapy has become a standard component of the treatment of schizophrenia. Do not waste time. In perseverative speech, words, ideas, or both are continuously repeated, as if the patient is unable to shift to another idea. It has been shown, however, that supportive therapy can be a useful adjunct to medication in the treatment of patients. Thus, no one of these symptoms is required for the diagnosis. Special offer! An early finding in this area was that schizophrenia patients were the one psychiatric group whose performance on neuropsychological tests was indistinguishable from people with known brain damage. Promo code: SAVE20, Gudwriter.com is a leading academic writing service that is dedicated to providing extra support and help to students all over the world. Like essay writing, for example. (Ed.). Enlarged ventricles suggest decreased brain mass, particularly in the limbic regions, which are intimately involved in emotional processing. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. It was around this time that the British Isles opened the first mental institution (Mueser & Jeste, 2008). The new pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. Complications of delivery that can result in hypoxia have also been linked with heightened risk for the disorder. But the identification of the causal agents and the specific neural substrates responsible for schizophrenia must await the findings of future research. These programs can increase punctuality, hygiene, and other socially acceptable behaviors in patients. Schizophrenia is a serious thought disorder, which affects one’s work, family, social life and an individual’s capacity to function. For about one third of patients, the illness is chronic and is characterized by episodes of severe symptoms with intermittent periods when the symptoms subside but do not disappear. (1995). The works that study the historical, statistical and medical aspects are reviewed. Medication also has the benefit of lowering the rate of mortality, particularly suicide, among schizophrenia patients. Thus it has been assumed that their efficacy is due to their capacity to reduce the overactivation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Noll, R. (2009). Order essays, research papers, term papers, book reviews, assignments, dissertation, thesis or extensive dissertations & our expert ENL writers will easily prepare a paper according to your requirements. These social class differences appear to be a partial consequence of the debilitating nature of the illness. Studies have also established that one may be at increased risks if they are born in the months of winter, especially February and March. Nonetheless, the overall rates do not differ dramatically for men and women. It is well established, however, that women are more likely to have a later onset of illness, as well as a better prognosis. It has for example been reported that viral infections during pregnancy contribute to schizophrenia development. Thus, environmental influences account for any behavioral differences between MZ twins. In fact, recent findings indicate that blunted emotional expressions can coexist with intense subjective feelings of emotion. But community support services and transitional living arrangements were not readily available to many patients. Hallucinations happen when one hears voices that are nonexistent. These family therapy sessions are psychoeducational in nature and are intended to provide the family with support, information about schizophrenia, and constructive guidance in dealing with the illness in a family member. In the domain of verbal expression, schizophrenia patients who manifest a very low rate of verbal output are described as showing poverty of speech. These perceptual distortions vary among patients and can be auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile. During middle childhood and adolescence, researchers have found evidence of neurological abnormality, poor emotional control, social immaturity, and academic performance deficits. Although additional medications can counter some of the negative effects of the typical antipsychotics, schizophrenia patients often resist taking them because of an aversion to the side effects. Their appearance may also be marked by disheveled clothing or inappropriate clothing, such as gloves and coats in the summer. Recently, some researchers have suggested that positive and negative symptoms may be caused by different neural mechanisms. This sample schizophrenia research paper features: 6600 words (approx. For example, the treatment was to drive out spirits out of a person by drilling a hole into their skull when the belief was that the disorder was caused by possession by evil spirits. Get a complete paper today. Second, when the brains of patients are examined with in vivo imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many show abnormalities in brain structure. The treatment in 1800s was worse as it involved locking patients in “insane asylums” and even flogging them. As official journal of the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) Schizophrenia Research is THE journal of choice for international researchers and clinicians to share their work with the global schizophrenia research community. The majority of hallucinations are auditory in nature and typically involve voices. Research Paper About Schizophrenia . Schizophrenic persons may also have feelings, tastes, smell, and sight of things that are actually not there. In schizophrenia of the paranoid type, delusional concerns about persecution and/or preoccupation with threat dominate the clinical presentation, although delusions of grandeur are also often present. New York: Basic Books. Studies using the high-risk method have shown an interactive effect of genetic risk and exposure to OCs in predicting adult psychiatric outcome. In severe situations, patients may need to stay in hospital for as long as the episode lasts for their own safety as well as that of others. Individual neuropsychological tests are designed to measure functions subserved by specific regions or systems of the brain. Gudwriter is your reliable source of essay help. Estimates of OCs in schizophrenics have been as high as 67%, significantly higher than the rate of OCs found in normal controls. A mental disorder whose characteristics include hallucinations, delusional behavior, disorganized speech, social isolation, intellectual deterioration, and emotional blunting. (1995). When the incomes and educational levels of the parents of patients are compared with those of the general population, the differences are not as striking. Another source of evidence for the viral hypothesis is the finding that the births of schizophrenia patients do not seem to be randomly distributed throughout the course of the year. Introduced in the 1950s, antipsychotic medication has since become the most effective and widely used treatment for schizophrenia. As is the case with many other disorders that involve brain dysfunction, there is evidence that schizophrenia is associated with exposure to prenatal and delivery complications. Effectively, this brought a stop in scientific research about mental illness during that time. Get a complete paper today. Essay Sample on Causes and Effects of Stress on Students, Sample Essays on "Who Am I?" You’ll need to develop the points using what you have found in your schizophrenia research and in the research articles on schizophrenia … For others, depressive symptoms may be medication side effects or a manifestation of a biologically based vulnerability to depression. There is good evidence, however, that exposure to high levels of criticism from family members can increase the likelihood of relapse in schizophrenia patients. They have created beautiful original work Research Paper About Schizophrenia at a reasonable price. In general, the overall content of loosely associated speech may be easier to comprehend than incoherent speech. Thus, family communication styles are unlikely to play a unique causal role in schizophrenia. Clang association is the utterance of rhyming words that follow each other (e.g., “a right, bright kite”). What is schizophrenia?. Initially spurred by concerns that too many of the mentally ill were becoming “institutionalized” and were losing their ability to function in the community, financial support for state psychiatric hospitals was gradually cut. Ours, therefore, is to pick up where your lecturers stop by providing you with a reliable process for meeting your academic needs. The risk is also increased if one is a twin, with the concordance rate for monozygotic twins ranging between 30% and 50% while that for dizygotic twins is about 15%. Although as yet there are no definitive answers, investigators have made continuous progress in identifying factors that are associated with risk for the disorder. Although “stress” was originally conceptualized as psychosocial in origin, contemporary versions of this model broaden the definition of stress to include prenatal and postnatal insults to the central nervous system. People with Type O blood are more likely to develop … In other words, the correlation between OCs and adult psychiatric symptoms was greater for offspring of schizophrenia parents than for children of healthy parents. Research Paper: Schizophrenia Social Sciences. Patients whose speech is normal in quantity, but lacks meaning, suffer from poverty of content. Research on the neuropsychological performance of schizophrenia patients was first conducted in the 1950s and continues to the present time. A., Stroup, T. S., & Perkins, D. O. The assessment shows a history of symptoms... A Study of Schizophrenia Between Men and Women Compared to the 1% rate that is found in the general population, these are considerably very high rates (Abel and Nickl-Jockschat, 2016). In the domain of interpersonal interactions, schizophrenia patients frequently demonstrate behaviors that are perceived as bizarre or inappropriate by others. Ohio state university phd thesis Schizophrenia Research Papers answers for school work best book to help with college essays. Delusions are the primary example of abnormal thought content in schizophrenia. The DSM uses the term disorganized speech to refer to abnormalities in the form or content of the individual’s verbalizations. We are likely to witness great strides in our understanding of the causes of all mental illnesses within the coming decades. He noted that mental deterioration symptoms that were the hallmarks of dementia were not often shown by patients with dementia praecox. Increased schizophrenia chances may also be attributed to complications during delivery. Third parties use cookies on our site to tailor … Whatever assignment you have, our qualified writers will save you time and grade. New York: Academic Press. The term loose association refers to the tendency to abruptly shift to a topic that has no apparent association with the previous topic. Describe the mla documentation style for research papers. Bleuler contested two of Kraepelin’s defining assumptions: specifically, that the psychosis was typically characterized by early onset and intellectual deterioration. Hiset essay writing tips: essay about the happiest day of my life. Individuals with psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychotic symptoms, were typically viewed by others with disdain or amusement. He named it this way so that he could create a distinction between the disorder and dementia. They are typically unable to work or maintain a social network, and often require hospitalization. You might love the specialty you’ve chosen Research Paper About Schizophrenia and the things you learn and still struggle with Research Paper About Schizophrenia some things. In contrast to Kraepelin, Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, proposed a broader view of dementia praecox, with a more theoretical emphasis. Cookies help us provide, protect and improve our services. Of course, during active episodes of the illness, schizophrenia patients are usually seriously functionally impaired. UWriteMyEssay.net has been an extremely useful company with my busy lifestyle. It is possible that future research on the neural mechanisms involved in schizophrenia will lead to the development of novel treatments that eliminate the need for maintenance medication. Although it was not called schizophrenia at the time, the description and identification of this disorder as a distinct mental illness was done by Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887. Medications however attract side effects such as weight gain, tremors, slow movements, feeling tired, restlessness, and dizziness. 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By the start of 1900s, schizophrenia was being commonly treated by fever therapy and such other treatments as prefrontal leucotomy, electroshock or electroconvulsive treatment, gas therapy, and sleep therapy (Lieberman, Stroup & Perkins, 2012). Given the debilitating and potentially chronic nature of schizophrenia, however, it is likely that some patients experience depressive symptoms in response to their condition. The findings suggested a generalized cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia. Current theories under investigation include a malfunction of the receptors for a neurotransmitter called glutamate and an abnormality in the balance between dopamine and serotonin (another neurotransmitter which, like dopamine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia). Individuals who succumb to schizophrenia in adulthood sometimes have abnormal motor development and show deficits in emotional expression and interpersonal relationships in early childhood. The overt behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia fall in two general areas: motor functions and interpersonal behavior. It is now firmly established that schizophrenia is caused by an abnormality of brain function that in most cases has its origin in early brain insults, inherited vulnerabilities, or both. It commonly affects the mouth and causes uncontrollable movements. Kraepelin’s work focused on description and phenomenology, leaving subsequent researchers to investigate the cause or causes of the disorder. Currently, schizophrenia is most commonly and effectively treated with antipsychotic medications. As mentioned, all currently used antipsychotic drugs block dopamine neurotransmission. Some psychiatric hospitals have established programs in which patients earn credits or “tokens” for appropriate behavior and then redeem these items for privileges or tangible rewards. Does a dissertation title have to be a question effects of technology essay introduction, importance of accounting ethics essay topics Research about schizophrenia paper. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) was among the first antipsychotic commonly used to treat schizophrenia. The results of these investigations show that when biological offspring of schizophrenic mothers are reared from infancy in adoptive homes they are more likely to develop schizophrenia than are adopted children from healthy mothers. However, there are often more subtle signs of dysfunction long before the onset of the prodromal period. Prenatal and perinatal factors are a leading theory, which is about defects in brain development as experienced by fetuses. Also, researchers hoped to identify medications that had fewer side effects. Also, as noted earlier, women and patients who have a later onset of symptoms have a better long-term outcome. However, there are many patients who are able to lead productive lives, hold stable jobs, and raise families. During the 1950s, mentally disordered people who were harmful to society and themselves could be treated with medications and were able to return safely to their communities. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press. Mueser, K. T., & Jeste, D. V. (2008). More than 6000 institutes have online or print (or both) access to this journal - the largest specialist journal in the field, with the largest … Other perceptual distortions that are commonly reported by schizophrenia patients include feeling as if parts of the body are distorted in size or shape, feeling as if an object is closer or farther away than it actually is, feeling numbness, tingling, or burning, being hypersensitive to sensory stimuli, and perceiving objects as flat and colorless. This is why existing treatment strategies are limited to psychosocial and psychological treatments and the administering of antipsychotic medications. There is a sharp contrast between the rates of schizophrenia in the lowest socioeconomic class and all other levels, including the next higher level. New York: Springer. Brain-imaging studies of schizophrenia have yielded results that mirror those obtained from neuropsychological research. Order Now. Another factor that has contributed to shorter hospital stays is the deinstitutionalization movement. As a result, former psychiatric inpatients now constitute a substantial proportion of the homeless found in U.S. cities. There have been significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia over the past few decades. The hope for those who suffer from it lies in correct diagnosis, treatment through antipsychotics, and proper long-term management. Twin studies rely on the fact that MZ twins essentially share 100% of their genes. In order to measure the effectiveness of each medication (or … Minor side effects include sensitivity to light, dryness of mouth, and drowsiness. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. Some researchers have identified a viral infection in fatal catatonia, a disorder characterized by schizophrenia-like symptoms, suggesting that a similar viral infection may be found for schizophrenia. Research paper about schizophrenia These contributing factors include prenatal, perinatal, brain abnormalities, and genetic predisposition factors. Researchers are now pursuing the question of what causes the brain abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Gemäß §28 BDSG widerspreche ich jeder kommerziellen Verwendung und Weitergabe meiner Daten. Kraepelin defined “dementia praecox,” the original term for schizophrenia, as an endogenous psychosis characterized by intellectual deterioration (dementia) and early onset (praecox). It is extremely draining on the ill person, as well as the people who care for them. (1996). The second most common form of hallucination is visual. However, they were not as effective in reducing the negative symptoms. In addition to hallucinations and delusions, the DSM lists three other key symptoms of schizophrenia: disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms. Such cases are attributed to the predisposing genes not being sufficient for schizophrenia to develop. This is partially due to residual symptoms, as well as to the interruptions in educational attainment and occupational progress that result from the illness. Because the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia are relatively broad, with no one essential symptom, there is a great deal of variability among patients in their symptom profiles. Essentials of schizophrenia. Understanding the neurotransmitters dopamine in the brain is one of the key factors to understanding the disorder. 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